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The border fence between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Border disputes frequently break out. Numerous ethnic Uzbek exclaves on the Kyrgyz side of the border means that rivers sometimes cross three or four borders in the space of a couple miles. Climate change in Kyrgyzstan is affecting cross border water rights in the already ethnically divided Fergana Valley, all while glaciers melt in the Tian Shan Mountains. Tensions are rising as different groups compete for scarcer and scarcer resources.